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What is Multiple Myeloma?

Multiple Myeloma is a type of Cancer, it develops in the plasma cells present in the bone marrow. The plasma cell is the type of White Blood Cells (WBCs) and it is produced from B lymphocytes. They are responsible for producing Immunoglobins. Immunoglobins are the protein that helps in fighting with infections by making Antibodies against the recognized bacteria. In Multiple Myeloma cancer overcrowding of healthy blood cells occurs in the bone marrow and this leads in the production of abnormal proteins that can cause complications.Multiple Myeloma

Types of Multiple Myeloma

There are several types of multiple myeloma but two are the two main types of multiple myeloma.

Main Types of Multiple Myeloma

  • Hyperdiploid (HMM): These myeloma cells produce the number of chromosomes than normal.
  • Non-hyperdiploid: These myeloma cells produce less number of chromosomes.

Other Types of Multiple Myeloma – There are several types of multiple myeloma some of them are described below.

  • Light Chain Myeloma: In this type of myeloma incomplete chains of the Immunoglobin forms that is why it is known as light chain myeloma.
  • Non-secretory Myeloma: This type of multiple myeloma cancer is difficult to diagnose as it does not make enough M proteins or light chains to test. A bone marrow biopsy can diagnose this type of myeloma.
  • Solitary Plasmacytoma: When rapid growth in the solitary mass of neoplastic monoclonal plasma cells occurs then tumor forms. This overgrowth cell production occurs in a bone or other tissue.
  • Extramedullary Plasmacytoma: In this tumor formation takes place outside the bone marrow in the body’s soft tissue. Generally, in this type of myeloma tumor formation takes in throat, sinuses, nose, and larynx (or voice box).
  • Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS): It involves M proteins formation. M proteins are abnormal antibodies made by myeloma cells. But MGUS doesn’t cause other symptoms of myeloma.

What are the Signs & Symptoms of Multiple Myeloma?

From below check the signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma. The person facing these symptoms must visit BMT Clinic for checkup and Multiple Myeloma treatment.

Low blood counts

Deficiency of Red Blood Cells (RBCs), White Blood Cells (WBCs), and Blood Platelets are common in multiple myeloma.

  • Anemia: It is a condition that forms when your blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells or hemoglobin.
  • Leukopenia: Lack of white blood cells causes Leukopenia.
  • Thrombocytopenia: Lack of blood platelet counts cause serious bleeding even with minor scrapes, cuts, or bruises.

Bone problems

  • Bone pain can occur in any of the body bone but mostly it seemed in back, the hips, and skull bone.
  • Bone weakness.
  • Bone Fractures (fractures), sometimes from only minor stress or injury it can occur

High blood levels of calcium

High levels of calcium in the blood called hypercalcemia and it can cause:

  • Extreme thirst
  • Dehydration
  • Weakness
  • Abdominal pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Severe constipation
  • Drowsiness
  • Kidney problems and even some times kidney failure
  • Urinating

Nerve Damage

Abnormal proteins produced by myeloma cells can lead to weakness and numbness and sometimes a “pins and needles” sensation. This is also known as peripheral neuropathy.

Nervous system symptoms

  • Sudden severe back pain
  • Numbness (mainly in legs)
  • Muscle weakness (mainly in legs)

Kidney problems

Myeloma protein can damage the kidneys. In early stage usually no symptoms are seen, but signs of kidney damage may be seen on a blood test or a urine test. At the moderate stage of Kidney failure, these symptoms can be faced:

  • Itching
  • Weakness
  • Swelling in leg
  • Shortness of breath

Infections

Myeloma patients are weak and their immune system did not work properly so this lead to frequent Infection. Pneumonia is a common and serious infection seen in myeloma patients.

Hyperviscosity

Production of a large amount of myeloma protein can cause blood thickening. This thickening is called hyperviscosityIt can slow blood flow to the brain and can cause:

  • Dizziness
  • Symptoms of a stroke, like weakness on one side of the body and slurred speech
  • Confusion

Drop a mail to Dr. Vikas Dua at drvikas@bmtclinic.com for knowing more about Multiple Myeloma Disease.

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